Maggid is the largest and one of the most important steps of the Seder, where it is necessary to retell the story of the Exodus. The commandment of the Torah orders to retell it, first of all, to your children, however, if there are no children at the table, you should still read the Maggid aloud - to convey the essence of the Exodus to all participants in the Seder without exception. Therefore, most of the texts can be read in the language convenient for you.
THE SECOND CUP OF WINE IS FILLED.
A napkin is lifted from the matzo and the "BREAD OF AFFLICTION" IS READ -
this text is usually recited in Aramaic:
This is the bread of affliction that our ancestors ate in the land of Egypt. All those who are hungry, let them enter and eat. All who are in need, let them come celebrate the Passover. Now we are here. Next year in the land of Israel. This year we are enslaved. Next year we will be free.
Why is the emphasis on “the bread of affliction”? Despite the fact that now the Jewish people are great and successful – we should not forget that earlier the Jews were slaves and the entire Jewish people had to pass a long and arduous way from slavery to prosperity. Remembering "the bread of affliction", we will leave no room for pride.
ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENTS OF THE MAGGID STEP IS QUESTIONS.
It is believed that the youngest participant in the Seder should ask questions, though other participants can also do this. Moreover, even the host of the Seder can voice the "4 main questions" that can be sung:
Ma nishtana ha lyla ha zeh mikkol hallaylot?
1. Shebb'khol hallelot anu okh'lin ḥamets umatsa, vehallayla hazze kullo matsa.
2. Shebb'khol hallelot anu okh'lin sh'ar y'rakot, vehallayla hazze maror.
3. Shebb'khol hallelot en anu matbillin afillu pa'am eḥat, vehallayla hazze sh'tei fe'amim.
4. 4. Shebb'khol hallelot anu okh'lin ben yosh'vin uven m'subbin, vehallayla hazze kullanu m'subbin.
Why is this night different from all other nights?
1. Why is it that on all other nights during the year we eat either leavened bread or matza, but on this night we eat only matza?
2. Why is it that on all other nights we eat all kinds of vegetables, but on this night we eat bitter herbs?
3. Why is it that on all other nights we do not dip [our food] even once, but on this night we dip them twice?
4. Why is it that on all other nights we dine either sitting upright or reclining, but on this night we all recline?
NEXT WE REMEMBER THE FOUR SONS.
There are four blessings with which different people bless the Almighty. And these four types of blessing correspond to the "four types of sons": one son is wise, another is wicked, the third is simple-hearted, the fourth is who does not know to ask. After all, the Torah was given to every Jew, and every Jew has a place among us at the festive table. But it is necessary to know the characteristics of those present and in accordance with them give instructions:
- The wise son asks, "What are the statutes, the testimonies, and the laws that God has commanded us to do?" You should tell him about the laws of Pesach, that one may eat no dessert after eating the Pesach offering.
- The wicked son, who asks, "What is this service to you? To you and not to him. Since he excludes himself from the community, he has denied a basic principle of Judaism.” You should blunt his teeth by saying to him: "It is for the sake of this that the Almighty did for me when I left Egypt. For me and not for him. If he was there, he would not have been redeemed.”
- The simple son, who asks, "What's this?" You should say to him "With a strong hand the Almighty took me out of Egypt, from the house of bondage."
- And the one who does not know how to ask, you start for him, as the Torah says: "And you should tell your son on that day, saying 'It is for the sake of this that the Almighty did for me when I left Egypt.'"
Then again, the matzo is covered with a napkin (the matzo is covered when the cup of wine is raised so that “bread is not embarrassed” because we take wine, not bread), the cup is raised (still not drunk) and the text “Vehi Sheamda” is recited or chanted:
Vehi She’amda, La’avotainu Velanu Shelo Echad Bilvad, Amad Aleinu Lechaloteinu Ela Sheb’chol Dor VaDor Omdim Aleinu Lechaloteinu V’HaKadosh Baruch Hu Matzilenu Miyadam
And it is this (the Torah) that has stood by our ancestors and for us.
For not only one (the Pharaoh) has risen up against us to destroy us,
but in every generation they rise up to destroy us.
But the Holy One, Blessed be He, delivers us from their hands.
The cup is put again on the table, the matzo is uncovered again, and the story of the Exodus continues (see the video "Exodus. History" below). When the narration reaches the STORY OF TEN PLAGUES, listing them in sequential order, it is necessary after naming each plague to remove a drop of wine from the cup (using a finger or a fork) and drip it onto a saucer or napkin:
1. Dam (blood)
2. Tzefardeyah (frogs)
3. Kinim (lice)
4. Arov (wild animals)
5. Dever (pestilence)
6. Sh'chin (boils)
7. Barad (hail)
8. Arbeh (locusts)
9. Choshech (darkness)
10. Makkat Bechorot (killing of the first-born)
After this procedure, the cup is replenished, the saucer is removed or the napkin is thrown away.
Further, it is customary to SING THE SONG "DAYENU", in which gratitude is pronounced to the Almighty for all the deeds that he did for the Exodus of the Jewish people. “Dayenu” in translation means “this would be enough for us”, i.e. we would be grateful to God for even the smallest part of what He has done.
Ilu hotzianu mimitzraim,
Velo asa bahem shfatim, dayeinu
Ilu asa bahem shfatim,
Velo asa beeloheihem, dayeinu
Ilu asa beeloheihem,
Velo harag et bechoreihem, dayeinu
Ilu harag et bechoreihem,
Velo natan lanu et mamonam, dayeinu
Ilu natan lanu et mamonam,
Velo kara lanu et hayam, dayeinu
Ilu kara lanu et hayam,
Velo heeviranu betocho becharava, dayeinu
Ilu heeviranu btocho becharava,
Velo shika tzareinu betocho, dayeinu
Ilu shika tzareinu betocho,
Velo sipeik tzarkeinu bamidbar arbaim shana, dayeinu
Ilu sipeik tzarkeinu bamidbar arbaim shana,
Velo heechilanu et haman, dayeinu
Ilu heechilanu et haman,
Velo natan lanu et hashabat, dayeinu
Ilu natan lanu et hashabat,
Velo kervanu lifnei har sinai, dayeinu
Ilu kervanu lifnei har sinai,
Velo natan lanu et hatora, dayeinu
Ilu natan lanu et hatora,
Velo hichnisanu l'Eretz Israel, dayeinu
Ilu hichnisanu l'Eretz Israel,
Velo bana lanu et beit habchira, dayeinu
If He had brought us out from Egypt, and had not carried out judgments against them – it would have sufficed.
If He had carried out judgments against them, and not against their idols – it would have sufficed.
If He had destroyed their idols, and had not smitten their first-born – it would have sufficed.
If He had smitten their first-born, and had not given us their wealt – it would have sufficed.
If He had given us their wealth, and had not split the sea for us — it would have sufficed.
If He had split the sea for us, and had not taken us through it on dry land — it would have sufficed
If He had taken us through the sea on dry land, and had not drowned our oppressors in it – it would have sufficed.
If He had drowned our oppressors in it, and had not supplied our needs in the desert for forty years — it would have sufficed.
If He had supplied our needs in the desert for forty years, and had not fed us the manna — it would have sufficed.
If He had fed us the manna, and had not given us the Shabbat — it would have sufficed.
If He had given us the Shabbat, and had not brought us before Mount Sinai — it would have sufficed
If He had brought us before Mount Sinai, and had not given us the Torah — it would have sufficed
If He had given us the Torah, and had not brought us into the land of Israel — it would have sufficed
If He had brought us into the land of Israel, and not built for us the Holy Temple — it would have sufficed.
ONE OF THE MAIN RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SEDER is fulfilled -
EXPLAINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THREE KEY TERMS: PESACH, MATZO AND MAROR.
Starting from the moment of the Exodus and subsequently - all the time when the Jewish people had holy Temples in Jerusalem, we were obliged to offer the Passover sacrifice. Each family bought a sheep to be slaughtered at the Temple, then roasted and eaten while sitting at home with the family. This sacrifice was called "Pesach".
Why was it named like that? With gratitude to the Almighty, we recall the fact that during the last plague of Egypt, the God "jumped" - "pasach" - over the houses of the Jews and did not kill their firstborn. In memory of the Passover sacrifice, there is a zeroa (a piece of chicken cooked over an open fire) on the Keara.
Important! During the retelling of the Passover story, we DO NOT point to the zeroa, and definitely do not pick it up.
In the process of narration, we pick up all three slices of matzo lying on our table and show them to everyone present.
On the night of the Seder, we eat matzo. Why matzo?
When the Jews were leaving Egypt, they had to do it in such an incredible hurry that they did not have time not only to stock up on food, but even to bake ordinary bread for the journey. Instead, they had to be content with thin unleavened cakes - matzo.
In the process of narration, we raise the maror and show it to everyone present.
We also eat bitter herbs during the Seder.
Why bitter? When the Jews were slaves in Egypt, they experienced terrible suffering - both physical and moral. In memory of this, we eat bitter greens, showing deep compassion for our ancestors and honoring their difficult history.
Now it's time to recite the blessing and empty the Second cup,
while remembering to cover the matzo with a napkin!
Baruch atah, Adonai Eloheinu, Melech haolam, borei p’ri hagafen
Blessed are You, Adonai our God, Ruler of the world, Creator of the fruit of the vine.